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Dear students:

Tuesday, 21 February 2012

Public speaking

Public speaking
Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners.
In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining.
The common fear of public speaking is called glossophobia (or, informally, "stage fright"). As Jerry Seinfeld said: "The average person at a funeral would rather be in the casket than doing the eulogy." Many careers require some ability in public speaking, for example presenting information to clients or colleagues.
Public speaking and oration are sometimes considered some of the most importantly valued skills that an individual can possess. This skill can be used for almost anything. Most great speakers have a natural ability to display the skills and effectiveness that can help to engage and move an audience for whatever purpose. Language and rhetoric use are among two of the most important aspects of public speaking and interpersonal communication. Having knowledge and understanding of the use and purpose of communication can help to make a more effective speaker communicate their message in an effectual way.
7 ways to make a great speech!
1.      A good start is to jot down bullet points of what you want to cover. Take a week for this, and keep a notebook on your nighttable.
2.      Find a good flow between the bullet points, you need some kind of structure so people can follow (ex for a wedding speech : start with your friendship, then talk about the relation between your friend & his wife, and finish off with some wishes to the couple)
3.      Andecdotes : the audience does not want to feel excluded : make sure anecdotes can be understood by everyone in the room
4.      Find some quotes that summarise or colour your text. Google some words/characteristics that you want to illustrate and you'll find plenty of intelligent well-written lines.
5.      Read it aloud a few times : it needs to flow in your mouth (Use exercices of style to make it flow better, like alliterations (words starting with the same letter) or use of adjectives per groups of 3...
6.      Make it short and crisp : Maximum 7 minutes

Elements Of An Effective Speech!

"Half the world is composed of people who have something to say and can't; the other half have nothing to say and keep saying it."
Anyone can give a speech. Not everyone can give an effective speech. To give an effective speech there are 6 elements you should consider.
a.     Be Prepared - Being prepared is by far the most important element. How many times do you practice your speech? As a general rule, you should spend about 30 hours of preparation and rehearsal time for every hour you will be speaking.
b.     Give of Yourself - Use personal examples and stories in your speech whenever possible. Make sure your stories help to emphasize or support your point. The stories must match your message. Use examples from your personal and professional life to make your point. In either case be willing to give of yourself by sharing some of yourself with the audience.
c.      Stay Relaxed - To stay relaxed you should be prepared. Also, focus on your message and not the audience. Use gestures, including walking patterns. Practice the opening of your speech and plan exactly how you will say it. The audience will judge you in the first 30 seconds they see you.
d.     Use Natural Humor - Don't try to be a stand up comedian. Use natural humor by poking fun at yourself and something you said or did. Be sure NOT to make fun of anyone in the audience. People will laugh with you when you poke fun at yourself but don't over do it.

e.     Plan Your Body & Hand Positions - During the practice of your speech look for occasions where you can use a gesture. Establish three positions where you will stand and practice not only how to move to them but where in your speech do you move. Pick three positions, one on center stage, one to your right, and one to your left. Do not hide behind the lectern. When you do move maintain eye contact with the audience.

f.       Pay attention to all details - Make sure you have the right location (school, hotel, room & time). Make sure you know how to get to where you are speaking. Ask how large an audience you will be speaking to. Make sure you bring all your visual aids and plenty of handouts. Arrive early so you can check out where you will be speaking and make any last minute adjustments.

g.      It is very important that you pay attention to even the smallest details. You can never overplan. Remember, "He who fails to plan is planning for failure".

h.     Gain an understanding of who you are. Discover your own knowledge, capabilities, biases and potentials.
i.       · Gain an understanding of your audience. Ponder upon what the audience wants to hear, what provokes their interest, what they believe in and what they want to know.
j.       · Gain an understanding of the situation. Consider how the setting of the place and other unforeseen factors could affect the way you deliver your speech.
k.      · Anticipate response from the audience. Make sure you have a clear purpose in mind so that the audience will respond in the way you want them to.
l.       · Search for other sources of information. There might be more materials available for you to make your speech more colorful.
m.   · Come up with an argument that is reasonable. Make sure that the purpose of your speech is supported by clear and reliable data to formulate a sound argument.
n.     · Add structure to your message. Organize your ideas so that the audience will not have a hard time following and digesting your ideas.
o.     · Talk directly to your audience. Make sure the language you are using is one that your audience is comfortable with. Consider the occasion in delivering your speech.
p.     · Gain self-confidence through practice. It is only through practice can you effectively present your speech. Master the flow of your presentation by repeatedly rehearsing it. That way, you can have command over your speech."

Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with regular speech. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist. Singers perform music known as songs that can either be sung a cappella (without accompaniment) or accompanied by musicians and instruments ranging from a single instrumentalist (a duet with a piano) to a full symphony orchestra or big band. Singing is often done in a group of other musicians, such as in a choir of singers with different voice ranges, or in an ensemble with instrumentalists, such as a rock group or Baroque ensemble. Nearly anyone who can speak can sing, since in many respects singing is merely a form of sustained speech.

Singing can be informal and done just for pleasure, for example, singing in the shower or karaoke; or it can be very formal, as in the case of singing during religious a ritual such as a Mass or professional singing performances done on stage or in a recording studio. Singing at a high amateur or professional level usually requires innate talent and a great deal of regular practice, and/or instruction.[1] Professional singers usually build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as Classical or rock, they typically take voice training provided by a voice teacher or vocal coach throughout their career.